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【生物学论坛】基因组时代的林木改良—机遇与挑战
来源:    作者:    发表时间:2019-05-27     浏览次数:

报告题目: 基因组时代的林木改良 ? 机遇与挑战

报 告 人: Yousry A. El-Kassaby

单    位: 加拿大 UBC 大学林学院

时    间: 20190527日,下午4:00-5:00

地    点: 生物学院313会议室

 

报告人简介:

Yousry El-Kassaby 教授,UBC 大学森林资源管理系主任、联合国粮农组织高级协调员、国际林业研究组织联合会 (IUFRO) 森林遗传资源委员会协调员,是当今最著名的森林遗传学家之一。主要研究领域为森林遗传学,涉及种子园基本理论、遗传多样性与基因筛选、基因组水平育种与实践,提出的BWB林木育种策略受到全球同行的广泛关注。他还是加拿大《森林研究》杂志副主编,《国际林业研究杂志》编委。2010年,荣获国际林联 (IUFRO) 科学成就奖,该奖项是国际林业研究领域最重要的奖项之一。目前,Yousry教授在国际期刊上已发表论文200篇以上。

 

摘 要

Traditional tree breeding programs have captured impressive gains for many species all over the world. These long-term endeavours are resource-dependent, require organizational commitment and cover vast geographic territories. Until now, the classic recurrent selection scheme, with its repetitive cycles of selection, breeding, and testing, has been the scheme of choice. Selection of parental candidates is often conducted in natural stands and/or plantations. Breeding involves the development of a structured pedigree produced from crosses among the selected parents following established mating designs. The breeding cycle is completed by testing and evaluation. This process identifies the elite individuals which are then introduced to seed orchards for mass production of genetically improved seed for reforestation. While successful, this current scheme is static and not responsive to market or climate changes. The availability of relatively affordable genomic information for “non-model” species such as trees, with their known large and complex genomes, allows the creation of innovative developments that eliminate most of the traditional recurrent selection steps, thus making breeding more responsive and nimble. Such novel developments include the use of genomic-based assembled pedigree evaluation, the blended single-step evaluation, and the development of revolutionary genomic selection methods that predict mature phenotypes performance at an early age through the use of their genotypes. This genomic revolution has significant ramification as the model unit of quantitative genetics has shifted from being the line of descent to the allele, thus creating a paradigm shift requiring drastic reevaluation of past and current practices. However, these exciting developments have their own pitfalls that require relentless evaluation.




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